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Inteligencja i świadomość zwierząt to fakt

20 marca, 2016 / 56 770 komentarzy

Psy mogą odczytywać ludzkie emocje. Podobnie jak… konie. Wieloryby posługują się swoim własnym językiem. Kruki są w stanie odgadnąć plany i myśli innych kruków. To co naukowcy nazywają „teorią umysłu” przestało być domeną tylko naszego gatunku. Nowe badania sugerują, że wiele cech, uznawanych dotąd za czysto ludzkie, w rzeczywistości dzielimy z wieloma, innymi gatunkami zwierząt.

 

Wbrew pozorom – nie chodzi tu o antropomorfizm. Przez wiele lat, obawa przed nadmiernym „uczłowieczaniem” zwierząt hamowała rozwój nauk o psychologii zwierząt. Dzisiaj jednak, wiemy już wystarczająco dużo aby spojrzeć na zwierzęta z ich perspektywy, bez antropomorfizacji ale i bez antropocentryzmu, który zabraniał nam podejmować tematów zwierzęcego umysłu i emocji. Ostatnie książki i raporty wskazują, że powinniśmy poważnie zastanowić się nad życiem wewnętrznym otaczających nas zwierząt.

 

Nauki o zachowaniu zwierząt sięgają XIX wieku. Odmawiano wówczas zwierzętom prawa do posiadania emocji. Obawiano się, że jakakolwiek sugestia na temat, warunkowanego emocjonalnie, zachowania zwierzęcia będzie uznana za nienaukowy antropomorfizm. Dzisiaj wiemy już, że wielu zachowań zwierząt po prostu nie da się wytłumaczyć bez odwołań do inteligencji i emocji. W przeciwnym razie popadniemy w antynaukowy nonsens.

 

W 1970 roku etolog, Donald Griffin opublikował pracę, w której po raz pierwszy, wprost pytał o świadomość zwierząt. Wielu krytykowało wówczas Griffina. Obecnie jednak, wiemy, że w wielu punktach Griffin miał rację! Nie tylko ludzie są zwierzętami świadomymi. Świadczy o tych chociażby ostatni raport naukowców z Cambridge. Nowe techniki i badania za pomocą nauroobrazowania pomagają nam badań umysłowe zdolności naszych zwierzęcych kuzynów. Empatia, myślenie abstrakcyjne – to już nie są cechy wyłącznie ludzkie.

 

Najwyższy czas przedefiniować rolę zwierząt w naszej kulturze i oddać im sprawiedliwość. To już nie są bezwolne maszyny, sterowane instynktem. Razem z nimi dzielimy, na różnym stopniu zaawansowania inteligencję i świadomość. Tak jak i my zwierzęta potrafią być motywowane emocjami. I tak jak i my potrafią cierpieć.

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